沉梦刷课网课代学QQ:14597532021知到答案 Arguments and Fallacies 如何推理论证 完整智慧树网课章节测试答案沉梦网课

沉梦刷课网课代学QQ:1459753

第一章 单元测试

1、判断题:
The goal of an argument is to abuse the audience.
选项:
A:对
B:错
答案: 【

2、判断题:
“33 + 66 = 99" is an argument.
选项:
A:对
B:错
答案: 【

3、判断题:
“Water is H20, and salt is NaCl" is an argument.
选项:
A:对
B:错
答案: 【

4、判断题:
Every argument has more than one premise.
选项:
A:对
B:错
答案: 【

5、判断题:
All conclusions are made up of (or expressed in) language of some kind.
选项:
A:对
B:错
答案: 【

6、判断题:
The purpose of an argument is to present some kind of reason for its conclusion.
选项:
A:对
B:错
答案: 【

7、判断题:
You can give the meaning of a word by specifying what it refers to.
选项:
A:对
B:错
答案: 【

8、判断题:
A justification tries to present a reason to believe its conclusion.
选项:
A:对
B:错
答案: 【

9、判断题:

When an argument is used for persuasion, its purpose is to cause its audience to believe its conclusion.

选项:
A:对
B:错
答案: 【

10、判断题:
A spoken argument is better when it is spoken more loudly.
选项:
A:对
B:错
答案: 【

11、判断题:

An argument can succeed in justifying its conclusion even if its audience rejectsthe argument's premises.

选项:
A:对
B:错
答案: 【

12、判断题:
The goal of an argument is to beat an opponent.
选项:
A:对
B:错
答案: 【

13、判断题:
Language is completely arbitrary.
选项:
A:对
B:错
答案: 【

14、判断题:
An explanation answers a question about why something happened.
选项:
A:对
B:错
答案: 【

15、判断题:
To persuade someone, you need to justify a conclusion.
选项:
A:对
B:错
答案: 【

16、判断题:
All arguments are made up of (or expressed in) language of some kind.
选项:
A:对
B:错
答案: 【

17、判断题:
You can give the meaning of a word by describing how it is used.
选项:
A:对
B:错
答案: 【

18、判断题:

When an argument is used for explanation, its purpose is to give a reason to believe that its conclusion is true.

选项:
A:对
B:错
答案: 【

19、判断题:
An argument that is spoken is no good if it is not spoken loudly enough.
选项:
A:对
B:错
答案: 【

20、判断题:
Every conclusion contradicts what the audience believes.
选项:
A:对
B:错
答案: 【

21、判断题:
To justify a conclusion, you need to persuade someone.
选项:
A:对
B:错
答案: 【

22、判断题:
All arguments are used either to justify or to explain their conclusions.
选项:
A:对
B:错
答案: 【

23、判断题:
Language is arbitrary in some respects.
选项:
A:对
B:错
答案: 【

第二章 单元测试

1、判断题:
An assuring term is reflexive when it refers to the mental state of the speaker.
选项:
A:对
B:错
答案: 【

2、判断题:
The word "since" is always a premise marker.
选项:
A:对
B:错
答案: 【

3、判断题:
Evaluative utterances are used only to express emotions or prescribe actions.
选项:
A:对
B:错
答案: 【

4、单选题:

 A(n) ___ term is used to indicate a response to a possible objection.

选项:
A:

A = assuring term

B:

G = guarding term

C:

D = discounting term


D:

E = evaluative term

答案: 【

D = discounting term


5、单选题:

A(n) ___term is used to indicate that the speaker has reasons for what he says

without actually giving those reasons.

选项:
A:

A = assuring term

B:

G = guarding term

C:

D = discounting term

D:

E = evaluative term

答案: 【

A = assuring term

6、单选题:

In this part of the quiz, indicate the main function of the term or phrase that is in boldface in the following passage. More than one letter might be acceptable, but you must choose only one option as the best.

 

From Steven Jay Gould: "The Panda's Thumb"

… The message is paradoxical but profound. Orchids manufacture their intricate devices

from the common components of ordinary flowers, parts usually fitted for very different

functions. If God had designed a beautiful machine to reflect his wisdom and power, surely he would not have used a collection of parts generally fashioned for other purposes.

Orchids were not made by an ideal engineer; they are jury-rigged from a limited set of

available components. Thus, they must have evolved from ordinary flowers.

Thus the paradox and the common theme of this trilogy of essays: Our textbooks like to

illustrate evolution with examples of optimal design—nearly perfect mimicry of a dead leaf by a butterfly or of a poisonous species by a palatable relative. However, ideal design is a lousy argument for evolution, for it mimics the postulated action of an omnipotent creator.

Odd arrangements and funny solutions are the proof of evolution—paths that a sensible

God would never tread but that a natural process, constrained by history, follows perforce.

 

 


选项:
A:

P = a premise marker

B:

C = a conclusion marker

C:

A = an assuring term

D:

G = a guarding term

E:

D = a discounting term

F:

F. E+ = a positive evaluative term

G:

E- = a negative evaluative term

H:

N = none of the above

答案: 【

D = a discounting term

7、单选题:

In
this part of the quiz, indicate the main function of the term or phrase
that is in boldface in the following passage. More than one letter
might be acceptable, but you must choose only one option as the best.

From Steven Jay Gould: "The Panda's Thumb"

… The message is paradoxical but profound. Orchids manufacture their intricate devices

from the common components of ordinary flowers, parts usually fitted for very different

functions. If God had designed a beautiful machine to reflect his wisdom and power, surely he would not have used a collection of parts generally fashioned for other purposes.

Orchids were not made by an ideal engineer; they are jury-rigged from a limited set of

available components. Thus, they must have evolved from ordinary flowers.

Thus the paradox and the common theme of this trilogy of essays: Our textbooks like to

illustrate evolution with examples of optimal design—nearly perfect mimicry of a dead leaf by a butterfly or of a poisonous species by a palatable relative. However, ideal design is a lousy argument for evolution, for it mimics the postulated action of an omnipotent creator.

Odd arrangements and funny solutions are the proof of evolution—paths that a sensible

God would never tread but that a natural process, constrained by history, follows perforce.

 

选项:
A:

P = a premise marker

B:

C = a conclusion marker

C:

A = an assuring term

D:

G = a guarding term

E:

D = a discounting term

F:

E+ = a positive evaluative term

G:

E- = a negative evaluative term

H:

N = none of the above

答案: 【

G = a guarding term

8、单选题:

In
this part of the quiz, indicate the main function of the term or phrase
that is in boldface in the following passage. More than one letter
might be acceptable, but you must choose only one option as the best.

From Steven Jay Gould: "The Panda's Thumb"

… The message is paradoxical but profound. Orchids manufacture their intricate devices from the common components of ordinary flowers, parts usually fitted for very different

functions. If God had designed a beautiful machine to reflect his wisdom and power, surely he would not have used a collection of parts generally fashioned for other purposes.

Orchids were not made by an ideal engineer; they are jury-rigged from a limited set of

available components. Thus, they must have evolved from ordinary flowers.

Thus the paradox and the common theme of this trilogy of essays: Our textbooks like to

illustrate evolution with examples of optimal design—nearly perfect mimicry of a dead leaf by a butterfly or of a poisonous species by a palatable relative. However, ideal design is a lousy argument for evolution, for it mimics the postulated action of an omnipotent creator.

Odd arrangements and funny solutions are the proof of evolution—paths that a sensible

God would never tread but that a natural process, constrained by history, follows perforce.

选项:
A:

P = a premise marker

B:

C = a conclusion marker

C:

A = an assuring term

D:

G = a guarding term

E:

D = a discounting term

F:

E+ = a positive evaluative term

G:

E- = a negative evaluative term

H:

N = none of the above

答案: 【

E+ = a positive evaluative term

9、单选题:

In this part of the quiz, indicate the main function of the term or phrase that is in boldface in the following passage. More than one letter might be acceptable, but you must choose only one option as the best.

 

From Steven Jay Gould: "The Panda's Thumb"

… The message is paradoxical but profound. Orchids manufacture their intricate devices from the common components of ordinary flowers, parts usually fitted for very different

functions. If God had designed a beautiful machine to reflect his wisdom and power, surely he would not have used a collection of parts generally fashioned for other purposes.

Orchids were not made by an ideal engineer; they are jury-rigged from a limited set of

available components. Thus, they must have evolved from ordinary flowers.

Thus the paradox and the common theme of this trilogy of essays: Our textbooks like to

illustrate evolution with examples of optimal design—nearly perfect mimicry of a dead leaf by a butterfly or of a poisonous species by a palatable relative. However, ideal design is a lousy argument for evolution, for it mimics the postulated action of an omnipotent creator.

Odd arrangements and funny solutions are the proof of evolution—paths that a sensible

God would never tread but that a natural process, constrained by history, follows perforce.

 

选项:
A:

P = a premise marker

B:

C = a conclusion marker

C:

A = an assuring term

D:

G = a guarding term

E:

D = a discounting term

F:

E+ = a positive evaluative term

G:

E- = a negative evaluative term

H:

N = none of the above

答案: 【

A = an assuring term

10、单选题:

In this part of the quiz, indicate the main function of the term or phrase that is in boldface in the following passage. More than one letter might be acceptable, but you must choose only one option as the best.

 

From Steven Jay Gould: "The Panda's Thumb"

… The message is paradoxical but profound. Orchids manufacture their intricate devices from the common components of ordinary flowers, parts usually fitted for very different

functions. If God had designed a beautiful machine to reflect his wisdom and power, surely he would not have used a collection of parts generally fashioned for other purposes.

Orchids were not made by an ideal engineer; they are jury-rigged from a limited set of

available components. Thus, they must have evolved from ordinary flowers.

Thus the paradox and the common theme of this trilogy of essays: Our textbooks like to

illustrate evolution with examples of optimal design—nearly perfect mimicry of a dead leaf by a butterfly or of a poisonous species by a palatable relative. However, ideal design is a lousy argument for evolution, for it mimics the postulated action of an omnipotent creator.

Odd arrangements and funny solutions are the proof of evolution—paths that a sensible

God would never tread but that a natural process, constrained by history, follows perforce.

选项:
A:

P = a premise marker

B:

C = a conclusion marker

C:

A = an assuring term

D:

G = a guarding term

E:

D = a discounting term

F:

E+ = a positive evaluative term

G:

E- = a negative evaluative term

H:

N= none of the above

答案: 【

E+ = a positive evaluative term

11、单选题:

In this part of the quiz, indicate the main function of the term or phrase that is in boldface in the following passage. More than one letter might be acceptable, but you must choose only one option as the best.

 

From Steven Jay Gould: "The Panda's Thumb"

… The message is paradoxical but profound. Orchids manufacture their intricate devices from the common components of ordinary flowers, parts usually fitted for very different

functions. If God had designed a beautiful machine to reflect his wisdom and power, surely he would not have used a collection of parts generally fashioned for other purposes.

Orchids were not made by an ideal engineer; they are jury-rigged from a limited set of

available components. Thus, they must have evolved from ordinary flowers.

Thus the paradox and the common theme of this trilogy of essays: Our textbooks like to

illustrate evolution with examples of optimal design—nearly perfect mimicry of a dead leaf by a butterfly or of a poisonous species by a palatable relative. However, ideal design is a lousy argument for evolution, for it mimics the postulated action of an omnipotent creator.

Odd arrangements and funny solutions are the proof of evolution—paths that a sensible

God would never tread but that a natural process, constrained by history, follows perforce.

选项:
A:

P = a premise marker

B:

C = a conclusion marker

C:

A = an assuring term

D:

G = a guarding term

E:

D = a discounting term

F:

E+ = a positive evaluative term

G:

E- = a negative evaluative term

H:

N = none of the above

答案: 【

C = a conclusion marker

12、单选题:

In this part of the quiz, indicate the main function of the term or phrase that is in boldface in the following passage. More than one letter might be acceptable, but you must choose only one option as the best.

 

From Steven Jay Gould: "The Panda's Thumb"

… The message is paradoxical but profound. Orchids manufacture their intricate devices from the common components of ordinary flowers, parts usually fitted for very different

functions. If God had designed a beautiful machine to reflect his wisdom and power, surely he would not have used a collection of parts generally fashioned for other purposes.

Orchids were not made by an ideal engineer; they are jury-rigged from a limited set of

available components. Thus, they must have evolved from ordinary flowers.

Thus the paradox and the common theme of this trilogy of essays: Our textbooks like to

illustrate evolution with examples of optimal design—nearly perfect mimicry of a dead leaf by a butterfly or of a poisonous species by a palatable relative. However, ideal design is a lousy argument for evolution, for it mimics the postulated action of an omnipotent creator.

Odd arrangements and funny solutions are the proof of evolution—paths that a sensible

God would never tread but that a natural process, constrained by history, follows perforce.

选项:
A:

P = a premise marker

B:

C = a conclusion marker

C:

A = an assuring term

D:

G = a guarding term

E:

D = a discounting term

F:

E+ = a positive evaluative term

G:

E- = a negative evaluative term

H:

N = none of the above

答案: 【

G = a guarding term

13、单选题:

In this part of the quiz, indicate the main function of the term or phrase that is in boldface in the following passage. More than one letter might be acceptable, but you must choose only one option as the best.

 

From Steven Jay Gould: "The Panda's Thumb"

… The message is paradoxical but profound. Orchids manufacture their intricate devices from the common components of ordinary flowers, parts usually fitted for very different

functions. If God had designed a beautiful machine to reflect his wisdom and power, surely he would not have used a collection of parts generally fashioned for other purposes.

Orchids were not made by an ideal engineer; they are jury-rigged from a limited set of

available components. Thus, they must have evolved from ordinary flowers.

Thus the paradox and the common theme of this trilogy of essays: Our textbooks like to

illustrate evolution with examples of optimal design—nearly perfect mimicry of a dead leaf by a butterfly or of a poisonous species by a palatable relative. However, ideal design is a lousy argument for evolution, for it mimics the postulated action of an omnipotent creator.

Odd arrangements and funny solutions are the proof of evolution—paths that a sensible

God would never tread but that a natural process, constrained by history, follows perforce.

 

选项:
A:

P = a premise marker

B:

C = a conclusion marker

C:

A = an assuring term

D:

G = a guarding term

E:

D = a discounting term

F:

E+ = a positive evaluative term

G:

E- = a negative evaluative term

H:

N = none of the above

答案: 【

N = none of the above

14、单选题:

In this part of the quiz, indicate the main function of the term or phrase that is in boldface in the following passage. More than one letter might be acceptable, but you must choose only one option as the best.

 

From Steven Jay Gould: "The Panda’s Thumb"

… The message is paradoxical but profound. Orchids manufacture their intricate devices from the common components of ordinary flowers, parts usually fitted for very different

functions. If God had designed a beautiful machine to reflect his wisdom and power, surely he would not have used a collection of parts generally fashioned for other purposes.

Orchids were not made by an ideal engineer; they are jury-rigged from a limited set of

available components. Thus, they must have evolved from ordinary flowers.

Thus the paradox and the common theme of this trilogy of essays: Our textbooks like to

illustrate evolution with examples of optimal design—nearly perfect mimicry of a dead leaf by a butterfly or of a poisonous species by a palatable relative. However, ideal design is a lousy argument for evolution, for it mimics the postulated action of an omnipotent creator.

Odd arrangements and funny solutions are the proof of evolution—paths that a sensible

God would never tread but that a natural process, constrained by history, follows perforce.

选项:
A:

P = a premise marker

B:

C = a conclusion marker

C:

A = an assuring term

D:

G = a guarding term

E:

D = a discounting term

F:

E+ = a positive evaluative term

G:

E- = a negative evaluative term

H:

N = none of the above

答案: 【

D = a discounting term

15、单选题:

In this part of the quiz, indicate the main function of the term or phrase that is in boldface in the following passage. More than one letter might be acceptable, but you must choose only one option as the best.

 

From Steven Jay Gould: "The Panda's Thumb"

… The message is paradoxical but profound. Orchids manufacture their intricate devices from the common components of ordinary flowers, parts usually fitted for very different

functions. If God had designed a beautiful machine to reflect his wisdom and power, surely he would not have used a collection of parts generally fashioned for other purposes.

Orchids were not made by an ideal engineer; they are jury-rigged from a limited set of

available components. Thus, they must have evolved from ordinary flowers.

Thus the paradox and the common theme of this trilogy of essays: Our textbooks like to

illustrate evolution with examples of optimal design—nearly perfect mimicry of a dead leaf by a butterfly or of a poisonous species by a palatable relative. However, ideal design is a lousy argument for evolution, for it mimics the postulated action of an omnipotent creator.

Odd arrangements and funny solutions are the proof of evolution—paths that a sensible

God would never tread but that a natural process, constrained by history, follows perforce.

选项:
A:

P = a premise marker

B:

C = a conclusion marker

C:

A = an assuring term

D:

G = a guarding term

E:

D = a discounting term

F:

E+ = a positive evaluative term

G:

E- = a negative evaluative term

H:

N = none of the above

答案: 【

E- = a negative evaluative term

16、单选题:

In this part of the quiz, indicate the main function of the term or phrase that is in boldface in the following passage. More than one letter might be acceptable, but you must choose only one option as the best.

 

From Steven Jay Gould: "The Panda’s Thumb"

… The message is paradoxical but profound. Orchids manufacture their intricate devices from the common components of ordinary flowers, parts usually fitted for very different

functions. If God had designed a beautiful machine to reflect his wisdom and power, surely he would not have used a collection of parts generally fashioned for other purposes.

Orchids were not made by an ideal engineer; they are jury-rigged from a limited set of

available components. Thus, they must have evolved from ordinary flowers.

Thus the paradox and the common theme of this trilogy of essays: Our textbooks like to

illustrate evolution with examples of optimal design—nearly perfect mimicry of a dead leaf by a butterfly or of a poisonous species by a palatable relative. However, ideal design is a lousy argument for evolution, for it mimics the postulated action of an omnipotent creator.

Odd arrangements and funny solutions are the proof of evolution—paths that a sensible

God would never tread but that a natural process, constrained by history, follows perforce.

选项:
A:

P = a premise marker

B:

C = a conclusion marker

C:

A = an assuring term

D:

G = a guarding term

E:

D = a discounting term

F:

E+ = a positive evaluative term

G:

E- = a negative evaluative term

H:

N = none of the above

答案: 【

P = a premise marker

17、单选题:

In this part of the quiz, indicate the main function of the term or phrase that is in boldface in the following passage. More than one letter might be acceptable, but you must choose only one option as the best.

 

From Steven Jay Gould: "The Panda's Thumb"

… The message is paradoxical but profound. Orchids manufacture their intricate devices from the common components of ordinary flowers, parts usually fitted for very different

functions. If God had designed a beautiful machine to reflect his wisdom and power, surely he would not have used a collection of parts generally fashioned for other purposes.

Orchids were not made by an ideal engineer; they are jury-rigged from a limited set of

available components. Thus, they must have evolved from ordinary flowers.

Thus the paradox and the common theme of this trilogy of essays: Our textbooks like to

illustrate evolution with examples of optimal design—nearly perfect mimicry of a dead leaf by a butterfly or of a poisonous species by a palatable relative. However, ideal design is a lousy argument for evolution, for it mimics the postulated action of an omnipotent creator.

Odd arrangements and funny solutions are the proof of evolution—paths that a sensible

God would never tread but that a natural process, constrained by history, follows perforce.

 

 

选项:
A:

P = a premise marker

B:

C = a conclusion marker

C:

A = an assuring term

D:

G = a guarding term

E:

D = a discounting term

F:

E+ = a positive evaluative term

G:

E- = a negative evaluative term

H:

N = none of the above

答案: 【

C = a conclusion marker

18、单选题:

 A(n) ___ term is used to weaken a claim in order to make it easier to defend against possible criticisms.

选项:
A:

A = assuring term

B:

G = guarding term

C:

D = discounting term

D:

E = evaluative term

答案: 【

G = guarding term

19、单选题:

A(n) ___ term can be either positive or negative.

选项:
A:

A = assuring term

B:

G = guarding term

C:

D = discounting term

D:

E = evaluative term

答案: 【

E = evaluative term

20、单选题:

 A(n) ___ term is used to make a claim less vulnerable to potential criticisms.

选项:
A:

G = guarding term

B:

A = assuring term

C:

D = discounting term

D:

E = evaluative term

答案: 【

G = guarding term

21、单选题:

A(n) ___term is used to indicate that the speaker has some reasons for what he says without actually specifying what those reasons are.

选项:
A:

G = guarding term

B:

A = assuring term

C:

D = discounting term

D:

E = evaluative term

答案: 【

A = assuring term

22、判断题:

 If a word can be replaced by a premise marker without significantly changing the meaning, then the original word is also a premise marker.

选项:
A:对
B:错
答案: 【

23、判断题:
“If … then …”is an argument marker.
选项:
A:对
B:错
答案: 【

24、判断题:
The word“too”in "too small" introduces an evaluation.
选项:
A:对
B:错
答案: 【

25、判断题:
The word "since" is sometimes a premise marker.
选项:
A:对
B:错
答案: 【

26、判断题:
Negative evaluative utterances say that something violates a standard.
选项:
A:对
B:错
答案: 【

27、判断题:
If a word in a sentence can be replaced by a conclusion marker without significantly changing the meaning of the sentence, then the word is used as a conclusion marker in that sentence.
选项:
A:对
B:错
答案: 【

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